Monday, 13 June 2016

Upgrading an X-trestle table, part 2

This post continues the story of enlarging/upgrading an X-trestle table of the previous post. I wanted to add a rim to our X-trestle table in the style of the medieval trestle table top in the 'Onze Lieve Vrouwe ter Potterie' museum in Bruges, Belgium. There, the parts of the rim are connected with a mitre joint. The actual joint is hidden, but the wooden nails used to fasten the joint can be seen at the underside of the table.

 Left: the underside of the Bruges table, where you can see the dowel pins to fasten the mitre joint. Right: the top of the Bruges table, between the rim and the middle of the table is some space to allow for wood movement.

Adding a rim means that the sides of the original table had to be squared. As this proved to be difficult to do with the table saw, the table top was sawn into four planks that could be easier handled. These were then glued again to each other. The thickness of the table was reduced from 5 to 3.4 cm, the thickness of the planks bought for the rim. The width of the rim was 11 cm.

 The re-glued and squared tabletop with the planks for the rim.

The rim and the original table top were to be connected with a tongue and groove, so a groove had to be cut. This was done using a router. Some extra space (3 mm) was given for the movement of the wood.

A 12 mm groove was cut at the edge of the tabletop with a router.

Left: Cleaning the groove with a hand router plane. Right: The table top with one added rim. A loose feather connects both. The feather was later glued into one groove.

The 45 degree mitres of the rim were cut with a drop-saw. A flat, loose tenon was used to connect both sides of the mitre. For this, in each 45 degree mitre a mortise had to be cut. Also here a router was used. A double screw vise (a modern version of the medieval double screw vise) clamped to the rim was used as a stable platform for the router. The router used to side supports, gliding over the screw vise, allowing only side movement. Then, side movement was blocked by two stops, thereby ensuring an exact measurement of the mortise.

Left: The double screw vise is clamped to the 45 degree angle of the rim and rests on a portable workbench. 
Right: The router has two side supports sliding along the double screw vise.

Left: Two stops ensure the maximum length of the mortise. The width of  the mortise is set by the width of the cutter. 
Right: Cutting with the router in process.

Cutting the mortise on the long rim was more problematic, as it did not stably fit in the portable workbench. This time the rim was clamped against a wall table. The portable workbench was now needed as a platform to stand on while operating the router.

The stretcher connecting the X-trestles with the tabletop were originally secured with brass screws to the table top. There is, however, a much better and more medieval way to secure this stretcher to the tabletop. This is a sliding dovetail, which also allows for movement of the wood. A sliding dovetail can for instance be found on the X-trestle table shown in the previous post and on a kitchen table in Chateau Martainville (France). The sliding dovetail used for my X-trestle table is in turn fixed by the rim of the table.

Left: The medieval kitchen table of Chateau Martainville, Martainville, France, with a sliding dovetail for the legs. 
Right: Detail of the 16th century X-trestle table showing the sliding dovetail.

The stretchers with the dovetails made on a router table.

Using the router to make the corresponding dovetail groove in the tabletop. Eventually a little wax was needed to be able to shove the dovetail stretcher in.

The stretchers were cut to the size of the tabletop with a 60 degree angle. Here you can see the difference between the blank oak of the tabletop and the 'aged' oak of the X-trestle.

Try-out of the dovetail stretchers with the X-trestles.

Now the tabletop was ready to be assembled. The loose tenon for the mitre joint was glued (which is essentially unnecessary). A jig was used to drill the four holes for the wooden pins of each mitre joint. This ensured that the holes were at exact the dame places at the four corners of the table. 

The table assembled, just before the wooden pins are added. 
The new stretcher to connect the two X-trestles can be seen on the left side of the table top.
Left: A set triangle is used to define the place of the drill jig. Right: The mitre with the four pins.

The next step was to adjust the X-trestles, the wedges and large pins to the same style as the rest of the table, e.g. making them blank oak again. For this scraper (for the large flat surfaces) and sanding machine (for the smaller and curved surfaces) were used.

Scraping and sanding the X-stretchers clean.

Also, a new larger stretcher connecting the two X-trestles was needed, as the two sliding dovetail stretchers were set further apart (necessary due to the enlargement of the tabletop). This stretcher is secured by wedges to the central point of the X-trestle. Finally, the table received three coats of linseed oil as protection against regular use as dining table. The finished table now measures 196 by 97 cm.

The underside of the table gleaming with linseed oil. The new stretcher (also oiled) is on top of two blocks to prevent it sticking to the table top.

The X-trestle is secured by two large pins to the table top, while the X-trestles are fixed with a wedge to the horizontal stretcher.

The final upgraded X-trestle table together with different X-type chairs and a strycsitten, ready for a medieval dinner.

Thursday, 26 May 2016

Upgrading an X-trestle table, part 1

Medieval trestle tables are tables that can be broken down easily and stored elsewhere when the room was needed for other activities. However 'easily' should be taken with caution: surviving medieval trestles are quite sturdy and heavy, and the table top usually consists of a single plank of 5 cm or more thick oak - thus extremely heavy -, so many people were needed to carry such a trestle table away. Medieval trestle tables come in two basic forms: (1) Tables where the trestles (and the table top) are separate from each other. The trestles from these tables are stable and able to stand on their own. (2) Tables where the trestles are fixed to each other. These trestles will topple over if they stand alone, and need to be supported by each other. 

One of these second type medieval tables is the X-trestle table. These tables continued to be produced after medieval times and are often associated with (the refectory of) cloisters and monasteries. In the Netherlands, they became again popular during the 1970s when (artificially) aged oak furniture could be found in many households. 

A large French X-trestle table from the first half of the 16th century. The table is made from oak and beech and 275 cm long, 74 cm deep and 82 cm high. The table top consists of two thick planks. The trestles need to support each other with the mortise-tenon stretcher underneath. Image scanned from J. Boccador 'Le Mobilier Francais du moyen age a la renaissance'.

The trestles from this table from Burg Kreuzenstein (Austria) even needs more support from a stretcher and two footholds. The table also has a drawer, indicating that it was used as a writing table.

We inherited such a X-trestle 'cloister' table made in the seventies. The table originally was given as a wedding present to the friends of Anne's parents and was made by a local carpenter. Later they swapped this table for a more elegant Queen Anne style table with Anne's parents. There, the sturdy table served as a workbench in the garage. The table top was (ab)used for painting, storing pots with various kinds of chemicals, glue, etc. When we received the table, the table top was in a terrible shape with all kinds of stains. Luckily, these stains did not went deep into the oak, and removing some millimetres from the top also removed the stains, revealing beautiful blank oak (the rest of the table being ugly dark-coloured oak).

Thinning the table top with the Italian medieval plane. Initially I started planing using an electric plane, 
but this medieval replica plane worked much faster.

Left: You can now see that the table top consists of 4 glued planks. Right: Shavings of the Italian plane.

At that time we did not have space in our house for the table and it was stored (just like a medieval trestle table). When we moved to another house, there was space enough for the table. Moreover, we needed an even larger table to fit to our medieval chairs. So I decided to upgrade the X-trestle table with a  rim, just like the trestle table from Bruges. In the next posts I will tell how this enlargement was done.

And X-trestle table from the Chronicle by Diebold Schilling of Lucerne (Luzerner Schillling) completed in 1513.

Meanwhile, if you want to make an X-trestle table like the ones shown above, or an other fixed trestle table, there are several re-enactment or SCA plans to make such a table available on internet. For instance, from Tom Reties 'Blood and Sawdust' site has a guide on an X-trestle table; Charles Oakley (St. Jerome's Table), Matthew Power (a Tudor table AD 1520) and 'Baron Thorvald' (a 14th century trestle table) have their versions of fixed trestle tables, although some need to be adjusted for their suitability for re-enactment. As it is nowadays difficult (or impractical) to make table tops consisting of a single plank, using multiple planks with a breadboard at each end is a more convenient - and still correct medieval - way to make a suitable table top for a trestle table. See for example the trestle table from Goslar in a previous post.

Sunday, 22 May 2016

Cassone: a medieval italian marriage chest

Cassoni were medieval (and renaissance) painted marriage chests. They were luxury goods that were painted and decorated in specialized workshops. The marriage chests were made in pairs and were paraded through the streets (from the home of the bride to that of the husband) to celebrate the wedding between wealthy families. Such marriage processions displayed the family’s power and they were sometimes criticized for being decadent and immodest. The wedding parades were banned in Florence in the 1460s. The paintings on the wedding chest often featured historical subjects, moral tales or allegories thereby showing the sophistication and status of their owners. Over centuries, the paintings on the fronts were often removed and sold to art collectors. The Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam, the Netherlands has several of those cassoni, as well as some frontal paintings belonging to now destroyed marriage chests.

Two large painted front panels from a cassone. Photos Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, the Netherlands. 
Top: The Persian ruler Darius marches to the battle of Issus against Alexander the Great, workshop of Apollonio di Giovanni, Florence, c. 1450-1455. height 48.5 cm × width 141.5 cm. Inv. nr. SK-A-3999.
Below: General Horatius Cocles defends the Sublician bridge against the Etruscans, c. 1450. height 40 cm × width 128 cm. Note that the drapery of the horse in the midst bears the same heraldic sign as shown on some other cassoni. Inv. nr.  SK-A-3302.

Two panels from an original pair of cassoni painted by Francesco Pesellino around 1450. Above: Triumph of Love, Chasticity and Death. 45.4 x 157.4 cm. Below: Triumph of Fame, Time and Eternity. 42.4 x 158.1 cm. Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, Boston, MA, USA.

The chests were not only luxury but also used practically to store household goods, such as clothing, linens and valuables. The cassoni can be divided into four basic shapes: (1) rectangular; (2) with a rounded front; (3) rectangular with a stepped lid; and (4) heavily sculpted. Those with a rounded front I like most and seem to be among the earliest examples of these chests. Types 3 and 4 were more late renaissance types. The Rijksmuseum has three of the rounded cassoni (and some others), though only one is on display in the museum. This prompted me to search on internet on other examples of these rounded marriage chests.

A type 1 cassone from the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam with very intricate intarsia inlays of ivory, walnut and ebony (certosina technique). Venice, 1500. height 57.0 cm × width 123.0 cm × depth 50.0 cm. Inv nr. BK-16629. Photo Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, the Netherlands.


Type 1 cassone dating from 1485-1500 made from walnut and maple. height 78.5 cm × width 184.5 cm × depth 67 cm. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, Inv. nr. BK-16872.Photo Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
A type 3 cassone with a tournament scene depicting among others the Spinelli and Tanagli families. Florence, c 1460. heigth 38 cm x width 130 cm, National Gallery, London, UK.

The rounded cassone on display in the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.  Inv. Nr. BK-16627.
Photo Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

The cassone that is on display in the Rijksmuseum is made of poplar and painted with heraldic signs in squares. It was constructed in the second half of the 15th century. On the left and the right of the front is a coat of arms with a ladder crowned with four lilies.  The sides of the chest do not have iron handles, like the other two Amsterdam cassoni. Height 56 cm, width 156 cm  and depth 49 cm.

 The lid of the cassone is painted in a single colour and  made up of several boards.

(left) Also the back is plain coloured.  The overlapping part of the lid serves as a stop for the hinge.
The lock for the cassone is completely hidden inside. Only the keyhole and some nails on the lid can be seen on the outside.

 A closer look at the feet of the cassone.

 The front of the Rijksmuseum cassone.

The side of the Rijksmuseum cassone.

Next are two other rounded cassoni from the Rijksmuseum that are not on display.

Painted cassone made of poplar between 1400-1500. The front of the chest is painted with the heraldic females Fortitudo, Justitia, Temperantia and Prudentia seated between Corinthian pillars. Height 53.5 cm, width 144 cm and depth 44.5 cm. In. nr. BK 16628, not on display. Photo Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Cassone made of painted poplar, made between 1500-1600. The front has arabesques in grisaille on a blue background. Height 58 cm , width 133 cm, depth 46.5 cm. Inv. nr. BK 16873, not on display. Photo Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

A similar cassone to the one on display in the Rijksmuseum is found in the Victoria and Albert museum in London, UK. However, this one is more lavishly painted, including the lid. Box and lid were first covered in cloth and then with gesso, before being painted in tempera with the Gonzaga and Montefeltro coat of arms and a series of personal emblems or imprese, including the letter 'A', a censer and flames, arranged in heraldic quarterings. The censer and red flames on a white background or ‘flames of love’ were the symbol of the Compagna della Calza, an order of knights based in Venice, to which Guidobaldo’s illustrious father Frederico (1422–1482) had belonged. The flames of love are also found on the Amsterdam cassone (and on the cassone panel SK-A-3302; the second photo of this post). The heraldic quartering are also shown on the sides, which do not have handles. The cassone was made around 1488 for the occasion of the marriage of Elizabetta Gonzaga, brother of Marchesa Francesco Gonzaga, to Guidobaldo da Montefeltro. An inventory of Elisabetta’s corredo trousseau, compiled around the 25th February 1488, lists 20 chests, 10 gilded, 10 painted with heraldic arms/devices. Chests with this distinctive shape were often strapped to the backs of mules or used as household furnishings. The married couple’s life involved much travel and even a brief spell in exile following the sacking of Urbino in 1502.

The front of the cassone from the V&A museum. Height: 55 cm, Width: 147.5 cm, Depth: 44.5 cm, Weight: 20 kg.

What is very nice of the photos of the Victoria and Albert museum is that the cassone is shown on all side, including the inside and the opened lid.

The backside is also not decorated.

The sides of the V&A cassone with the heraldic quarterings and without handles.

This painted cassone is from the Horne museum (Florence, Italy) dates from 1480 and  attributed to Lorenzo di Credi. The Rossi and Pitti families’ joined crest is painted within a grotesque decoration that features putti (chubby male children).

Cassone made of  wood with painted plaster decoration and traces of gilding. Made around 1500-1550 in central Italy. Height 45.1 cm. width 152.4 cm, depth 45.7 cm. Inv. Nr. 1914-243. Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

A cassone from 1550 from the Horne Museum, Florence, Italy.

Cassone with the coat of arms and emblems of the Medici Family. Made in Florence, Italy, around 1450-1460 of poplar with painted decoration. Height 48.6 cm, width 160.8 cm, depth 48.9 cm.
Inv. nr. 1930-81-6. Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

A cassone with the coat of arms of the Family Strozzi. Also the backside of the cassone is decorated, but only a plain motif. Made around 1400-1450. Wood and painted parchment, height 45 cm, width 160 cm, depth 47 cm. Carlotta Bruschi Collection, Florence, Italy.

Painted cassone in the Palazzo Davanzati, Florence, Italy. The Palazzo is furbished in a fourteenth century Italian style. Photo from the site mentioned in the photo.

A (small) religious casket in the form of a 'cassone' originating from Umbria, Italy around 1500. Made of painted wood with the representation of  'the Annunciation'. Photo from a Belgian antique dealer.